PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma)
Blood is a loose connective tissue whose matrix is a liquid called plasma. Blood constantly circulates in the body providing with nutrition, oxygen, and waste removal. The average human adult has about five liters of blood living inside of their body, coursing through blood vessels.
The blood carries oxygen from lung to other tissues and carbon dioxide to lungs from tissues, functioning as important for life.
It carries nutrition and all the hormones to the tissues and becomes vital for growth.
It is important for health as it carries immune substances and removes waste materials from cells to kidneys.
Blood contains living cells such as red blood cells and white blood cells.
Plasma makes up about half of the content of blood.
Plasma itself is around 90% water, with the 10% remainder including proteins, minerals, clotting factors, Hormones, Glucose and immunoglobins. It supplies all these to the cells and carries waste product from each cell from processing.
This is the medium for the blood cells to travel. The liquid plasma caries the solid cells and platelets.
Plasma has an important role in maintaining blood pressure and in distribution of heat throughout the body and to maintain homeostasis. It also helps to control acid-base balance in the blood and body.
To separate the blood plasma, the blood is run in a centrifuge. As the blood spins, the heavier blood cells settle to the bottom, and the plasma rises to the top. Plasma is usually straw colored, and sometimes it can be cloudy or grayish, depending on the health and diet of the plasma’s host.
Platelets are irregularly-shaped, colorless cells present in blood. They are not only the smallest, but the lightest of the blood cells.
Platelets are produced from very large bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes.
There will be a release of over 1,000 platelets per megakaryocyte. The dominant hormone controlling megakaryocyte development is thrombopoietin.
They have sticky surface which help them, along with other substances like protein secreting granules , to form clots to stop bleeding. While that is a primary function of platelets, they are also very involved in injury healing and rejuvenation as they are rich in growth factors.
This means, at the same time they act as the key of the body to stop bleeding and to repair and rejuvenate the damaged blood vessels and other tissues.
GROWTH FACTORS RELEASED BY PLATELETS
Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF):-
This growth factor that initiates nearly all wound healing. It exists in three active forms: PDGFaa, PDGFbb, and PDGFab.
Their main functions are to stimulate cell replication (mitogenesis) of stem cells, which have healing capability. They also help to initiate the osteoprogenitor cells which are also part of the connective tissue-bone healing cellular composite. It also stimulates cell replication of endothelial cells which leads to budding of new capillaries into the wound (angiogenesis), a fundamental part of all wound healing and repair.
Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGFß)
The group of TGFßs includes all of the well-known bone specific morphogen growth factors.
The types of TGFß found in platelets are TGFß1 and TGFß2. These are the more generic connective tissue growth factors which are involved with matrix formation (i.e. cartilage and bone matrix as well as vascular basal lamina matrix.)
These are found in the alpha granules of platelets, and are actively extruded when there is a tissue injury or surgery .
The Cells usually stimulated and activated are fibroblasts(producing more collagen), endothelial cells( more blood vessels), osteoprogenitor cells(Produce bone matrix), chondroprogenitor cells(producing matrix for cartilage), and mesenchymal stem cells( more cells for healing, repairing and regeneration).
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs)
This group is multifunctional proteins and mainly helps in angiogenesis (formation of new capillaries) . They initiate and control wound healing by increasing proliferation of fibroblasts which produce granulation tissue to heal the wound . They are often referred as pluripotent growth factors as they have multiple functions on cells.
As they have effect on proliferation, migration, differentiation and re-modeling of injured and damaged tissues, they play an important role in repair and rejuvenation.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
This group ‘s normal function is to create new blood vessels during embryonic development, after injury, and new vessels (collateral circulation) to bypass blocked vessels.
VEGF is a sub-family of growth factors, specifically the platelet-derived growth factor family of cystine-knot growth factors. Signal transduction involves binding to tyrosine kinase receptors which leads to endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and new vessel formation.
Epithelial(Epidermal) Growth Factors
This Growth factors Help in cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival and wound healing.
PLATELET RICH PLASMA
Platelet Rich Plasma is basically what’s left when blood cells (Red and White) are separated from the liquid component of human whole blood. This plasma is enriched with platelets .
The platelets collected in PRP are activated by the addition of activators to get more results when used for treatments.
Growth factors and bioactive signaling proteins are increased significantly in PRP compared to whole blood (WB) and platelet-poor plasma.
As PRP is a rich source of growth factors it promotes significant changes in monocyte-mediated proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine release. LXA(4) is seen increased in PRP, suggesting that PRP may suppress cytokine release, limit inflammation, and, thereby, promote tissue repair and regeneration.
Infact PRP is a cocktail of many proteins that collectively stimulate repair and regeneration.
The Platelet Rich Plasma is made by collecting a small volume of blood and spinning it down to separate the red blood cells from the platelet cells.
PRP stimulates endothelial, epithelial, and epidermal regeneration, initiates angiogenesis, enhances collagen synthesis, promotes soft tissue healing, decreases dermal scarring, accelerates the hemostatic response to injury, and reverses the inhibition of wound healing caused by glucocorticoids. The high leukocyte concentration of PRP has an added antimicrobial effect.
AUTOLOGUS PLATELET RICH PLASMA THERAPY
The Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy is a new and advanced treatments where the patient’s own blood is drawn and centrifuged to separate platelet rich plasma. It contains 5-10 times the concentration in whole blood.
The blood is collected from the patient, and is undergone a gradient density centrifugation to separate autologus PRP and injected directly back into the area of the body in need of repair and rejuvenation.
The concentrated platelets levels in the platelet rich plasma are generally 6 to 8 times more than that in the normal blood.
PRP therapy offers a promising solution to accelerate repair and regeneration.
It is recommended for anyone who prefers a more advanced natural approach to healing and anti-ageing treatments. It is a completely safe and highly effective treatment for repair and rejuvenation.
This procedure is performed under local anesthetic, which numbs the area to be treated , to minimize pain for patients. Most patients tolerate the injection well and experience little to no discomfort from the injection.
The result and efficacy of prp treatment depends on the local delivery of a wide range of growth factors and proteins, mimicking and supporting physiologic wound healing and reparative tissue processes.
The various uses of Autologus PRP Treatment are described below
Consequently, the application of PRP has been extended to many different fields, including orthopedics, sports injuries, Anal Fistula , dental and periodontal surgery, and cosmetic, plastic, cardiovascular, general and maxillofacial surgery
It is commonly used For the Treatment of Hairloss, Faial Rejuvenation, Scar Removal, Breast Augmentation, Chronic wound Healing, Stretch Marks removal, Sports injuries, Ankylosing Spondilitis and other Rheumatic Joint Pains.
Treatment with autologus PRP is generally considered safe, as the patients own blood is used for it.
Anyway potential candidates for treatment with PRP should undergo a pretreatment hematologic evaluation to rule out possible contra indications. They are like coagulopathies and disorders of platelet function.
Patients who are anemic and those with thrombocytopenia may be unsuitable candidates for treatment with PRP.
Other potential contraindications include hemodynamic instability, severe hypovolemia, unstable angina, sepsis, and anticoagulant or ﬁbrinolytic drug therapy